A Comprehensive Overview of Diabetes

A Comprehensive Overview of Diabetes

Diabetes is a long-term health issue, a chronic disease affecting how your body converts food into energy. It is a condition that develops when your blood glucose, often known as blood sugar, is too high. It is also called Diabetes mellitus.

Your body converts most of the food into glucose and releases it into circulation. When your blood sugar rises, your pancreas signals to produce insulin blood sugar may enter cells and be utilised as an energy source due to insulin. Blood glucose is your primary energy source from the foods you consume. Insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas, aids in transporting glucose from food into your cells for use as energy. Sometimes your body needs more or some insulin or may not use it effectively. Glucose thus stays in your circulation rather than reaching your cells.


Diabetes is thought to occur when your body does not create enough insulin or does not utilise it as well as it should. When insulin is inadequate, or cells cease reacting to insulin, blood sugar stays in circulation. Over time, this can lead to serious health problems such as cardiac problems, vision loss, and renal disease.

Too much glucose in your blood might lead to health concerns over time. Although there is no cure for diabetes, you may make efforts to manage it and stay healthy.

Thresholds of Diabetes:

The levels of diabetes in different individuals range as below:

  • 90 – 110 mg /dL or less fasting blood sugar is normal.
  • 110 to 140 mg / dl- Normal post lunch blood sugars.
  • 140 to 160 mg/dl is prediabetes range.
  • More than 160 mg /dL is a sign of diabetes.

To ensure your diabetes is professionally managed, follow these steps regularly.

  • Take the medication regularly and exactly as directed.
  • Get diabetes self-management training and support.
  • Modify lifestyle & follow a proper diet chart.
  • Schedule and attend medical appointments regularly

Types of Diabetes:

There are four common types of diabetes:

  • Type 1
  • Type 2
  • Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA)
  • Gestational

Type 1 diabetes: It is commonly recognised in children, adolescents, and young adults. It is an autoimmune disorder. When diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, the immune system targets the insulin-producing pancreatic cells. This response inhibits your body’s ability to produce insulin. Type 1 diabetes affects around 5-10% of people with diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes: When diagnosed with type 2 diabetes [HbA1C (3 months average sugar levels) > 6.7%], the body does not utilise insulin properly and cannot maintain normal blood sugar levels. 90% to 95% of people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes. It develops over time and is diagnosed in adulthood. Type 2 diabetes can be avoided or delayed by making healthy lifestyle changes such as:

  • Weight loss.
  • Consuming nutritious foods.
  • Staying active.

Gestational diabetes: This diabetes is caused by hormonal changes that occur during pregnancy. Placental hormones can reduce your body’s sensitivity to insulin. This can lead to high blood sugar levels during pregnancy. This is detected by GTT (Glucose Tolerant Test).

Prediabetes: Blood sugar levels are above the normal in prediabetes but not high enough to be recognised as type 2 diabetes. However, there is some good news. Prediabetes increases the likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes. If you have prediabetes, a lifestyle change programme can help you reverse it healthily. [HbA1C (3 months average sugar levels) – 5.7% to 6.7%]

Diabetes caused by other factors: 

Diabetes of the young with a mature onset (MODY): This kind of diabetes is caused by a genetic mutation and runs in families. Children with a genetic mutation are more likely to get this kind of diabetes by the age of 25.

Diabetes in a newborn: Neonatal diabetes is often diagnosed in children under six months. It is a hereditary disease that differs from type 1 diabetes because it is not an autoimmune disorder. On the other hand, children with this illness are born with a genetic alteration that inhibits their ability to make insulin.

Other conditions induce diabetes: Diabetes of this type is caused by illnesses such as cystic fibrosis, pancreatic cancer, or pancreatitis, which impair the pancreas’ ability to make insulin.

Diabetes induced by steroids: Intake of steroids will cause hormone fluctuations and can cause high blood sugar.


Symptoms of Diabetes: 

Here are some symptoms your body may experience as diabetes develops.

  • Excessive urination, excessive thirst & excessive hunger
  • Protein in urine
  • Foot problems – ulcers, tingling sensation, numbness of feet, burning sensation of soles.
  • Damaged blood vessels
  • Eye problems, kidney problems
  • Fatigue

Risk Factors of Diabetes:

Diabetes can be efficiently controlled if diagnosed early. However, if left untreated, it can lead to several issues, including:

  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Stroke
  • Kidney disorder
  • Injury to the nerves

Treatments for Diabetes:  

Glucose monitoring, insulin, and oral medications may all be part of your treatment plan, depending on the kind of diabetes you have. Eating a balanced diet, supporting a healthy weight, and engaging in regular physical exercise are all critical components of diabetes management.

  • Blood Sugar Management: blood sugar management is the only way to keep diabetes at bay. Even with management, diabetes is influenced by hormone fluctuation in females.
  • Insulin treatment: Insulin treatment is needed for people with type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes (diabetes in pregnancy). An insulin pump, the size of a small cell phone, is worn outside the body with a tube connecting the insulin source inserted under the skin.
  • Medicines: Initially, for type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes (according to the age of pregnancy), there are medications to control blood sugar. For uncontrolled type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes, insulin treatment is administered.

Apollo Homecare: 

Whether you’ve been newly diagnosed, have been fighting against diabetes for a while, or are helping a loved one, we are here to help you. With Apollo Homecare, you can get your regular tests, doctor’s visits, nurse services & personalized dietician consultation in the comfort of your home. Our professionals are licensed and highly trained to provide the best possible care.

Reach us out on 1800 102 8586

Or write to us at: reach@apollohomecare.com

To enquire about our services : https://apollohomecare.com/all-services/

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